Academic Articles


The Cold War and the Communist Party of Saudi Arabia, 1975–1991’, Journal of Cold War Studies 22 (3/2020), 32-62.

Saudi Arabia and the Cold War’ in: Madawi al-Rasheed (ed.), Salman’s Legacy: The Dilemmas of a New Era in Saudi Arabia (London: Hurst & Co, 2018), 217-233.

’Red Arabia: Anti-Colonialism, the Cold War, and the Long Sixties in the Gulf States’, in: Chen Jian, Martin Klimke, Masha Kirasirova, Mary Nolan, Marilyn Young, Joanna Waley-Cohen, (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Global Sixties (London: Routledge, 2018), 94-105.

Sectarianization as Securitization: Identity Politics and Counter-Revolution in Bahrain’, in: Nader Hashemi and Danny Postel (eds.), Sectarianization: Mapping the New Politics of the Middle East (London: Hurst & Co, 2017), 199-214.

Renting the Casbah: Gulf States’ Foreign Policy towards North Africa since the Arab Uprisings’, in Kristian Coates Ulrichsen (ed.), The Changing Security Dynamics of the Persian Gulf (London: Hurst & Co, 2017), 43-59.

Government and Opposition in the Middle East: The 1993 Negotiations Between the Saudi Shia Opposition and King Fahd’ in: Gabriele vom Bruck and Charles Tripp (eds.), Precarious Belonging: Ways of being Shiʿi in non-Shia worlds (London: The Centre for Academic Shi‘a Studies, 2017), 377-417.

‘The Iranian Revolution and Sunni Political Islam’, Project on Middle East Political Science, 2017.

‘Saudi Arabia’ in: Shadi Hamid and William McCants (eds.), Rethinking Political Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), 118-131.

Transnational diffusion between Arab Shia movements‘, POMEPS (2016).

Transnational Identities after the Arab Uprisings‘ in: Narbone, Luigi and Martin Lestra (ed.), The Gulf Monarchies beyond the Arab spring: changes and challenges (Florence: European University Institute, 2015), 32-37.

‘Conservative Monarchies in a Transforming Region’, in: Valeria Talbot (ed.), The Rising Gulf: The New Ambitions of the Gulf Monarchies (Milan: Istituto per gli Studi di Politica Internazionale, 2015), 13-26.

The domestic sources of Saudi foreign policy: Islamists and the state in the wake of the Arab Uprisings (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2015).

Shiʿi Historians in a Wahhabi State: Identity Entrepreneurs and the Politics of Local Historiography in Saudi Arabia’, International Journal of Middle East Studies 47, no. 1 (2015), 25-45.

Migration, Minorities and Radical Networks: Labour Movements and Opposition Groups in Saudi Arabia, 1950-1975‘ in: International Review of Social History 59, no. 3 (Autumn 2014), 473-504. See Arabic translation here

Mysticism, Migration and Clerical Networks: Ahmad al-Ahsaʾi and the Shaykhis of al-Ahsa, Kuwait and Basra‘ in: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs (2014).

Centre–Periphery Relations and the Emergence of a Public Sphere in Saudi Arabia: The Municipal Elections in the Eastern Province, 1954–1960‘ in: British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (2014).

The Local and the Transnational in the Arab Uprisings: The Protests in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province,” in May Seikaly and Khawla Matar (eds.), The Silent Revolution: The Arab Spring and the Gulf States (Berlin: Gerlach Press, 2014), 105-143.

(No) Dialogue in Bahrain
Middle East Report Online (February 13, 2014)

‘EU foreign policy towards Bahrain in the aftermath of the uprising’
in: Ana Echagüe (ed.) The Gulf States and the Arab Uprisings (Madrid: FRIDE, 2013), 77-85.

A “Saudi Spring?”: The Shi‘a Protest Movement in the Eastern Province 2011–2012
The Middle East Journal 66, No. 4, (Autumn 2012), 628-659.  Arabic Translation here

Hizbullah al-Hijaz: A History of The Most Radical Saudi Shi’a Opposition Group
The Middle East Journal 64, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 179-197.

Diwaniyyas, Intellectual Salons and the Limits of Civil Society in Saudi Arabia
Viewpoints: Saudi Arabia 1979-2009: Evolution of a Pivotal State (Washington: Middle East Institute, 2009), 13-15.

Schiiten in Saudi-Arabien: Zwischen Ausgrenzung, Opposition und saudischem Nationalismus
Schweizerische Gesellschaft Mittlerer Osten und Islamische Kulturen Bulletin 30, Frühjahr (2010): 5-7.

The Shi‘a of Saudi Arabia at a Crossroads
Middle East Report Online (May 6, 2009).


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